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The Congress Movement

The Congress Movement

ICU, ANC, CP and Congress Alliance Author Sylvia Neame's study of the development of the national liberation movement in South Africa is in stark contrast to the frequent depictions of the history of the ANC by leading academics as fragmented, fractured and discontinuous. Not only does her analyses disprove the belief that the ANC's development has been episodic, several of the conclusions drawn point to its essential inner coherence. Crucial to the development of the congress movement was the search for an alliance strategy that would ensure the ANC its central role. Particularly striking, and essentially new, is the depiction of the various alliance partners including the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICU), the Communist Party and the South African Congress of Trade Unions and their complicated interaction. The research, based on extensive primary and secondary sources including some eighty interviews dating back to the early 1960s, uniquely combines narrative and analysis. The Congress Movement invites the reader to engage in the fascinating development of the national liberation movement in South Africa in its formative period and uncovers its outstanding continuities as well as the considerable range of its methods. Volume 3 explores how the ANC emerges and steps into its primary role as a national liberation movement resulting from a complex process stretching from the 1920s to the beginning of the 1960s. A key theme in this context is the integral role of the then Congress Youth League leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo. VOLUME 3: 19281961 SEARCHING FOR THE ADEQUATE FORM OF THE UNITED FRONT, 1928-34: Threats to the ANC's primary role Introduction ANC-ICU decision for cooperation, 1928 with an anti-communist rider Issue of passes, 1928-30. League of African Rights. What kind of organization was this? Mahabane, not Gumede, takes the lead in calling for an African Convention Mahabane's policy of a black-white round table & declaration of rights, 1929 ANC conference The communists' attitude to Mahabane's policies Mahabane & communism, 1929 Manoeuvres to dismantle the ANC's primary role, 1926-30 Gumede loses the Congress presidency Plans to restructure the ANC on the basis of employees' organizations role of Ballinger The Non-European Conference ANC AT THE TIME OF THE SEME PRESIDENCY, 1930-37: Its congress character is endangered Introduction Seme's political positions at the time of the founding of the ANC The new Seme constitution Seme & the Upper House at the time of the Mahabane presidency, 1937-40 Seme & business Fate of the Heaton Nicholls initiative in the framework of the Joint Select Committee Some ANC leaders & the Nicholls plan, 1931 State of the ANC in the first half of the '30s Liberals prime DDT Jabavu as African leader on the franchise proposals Congress leaders call for an All African Convention. The regional conferences The All African Convention, 1935 Manoeuvres around the "compromise" of 1936 Thema, Dube & Seme & the "compromise" Seme's removal at the 1937 conference. Mahabane puts the ANC back on course. AAC & ANC, 1937-48: Federal or unitary principle? Introduction Kadalie's response to the AAC Was the AAC a new social movement? The communists' attitude to the AAC Reservations about the AAC & early moves to revive the ANC The AAC challenge is defeated 1943 a turning point Xuma & AAC(-NEUM), including the "meeting of the 12 leaders" ANC UNDER XUMA, 1940-49: To what extent was it a break with the previous era? Introduction Were Congress councillors on the NRC mandated by the ANC? Division of labour between Matthews & Xuma. 1943 NRC Recess Committee on Representation A new phase opens with Africans' Claims Pass campaign, 1943-46 The crisis conditions of 1946 Xuma, Congress & trade unionism Prelude to the African mineworkers' strike African mineworkers' strike, 1946 The communists & the question of a non-European trade union federation Adjournment of the NRC & the Smuts proposals Xuma, the ANC, & the boycott of the NRC Xuma & organization Growing political role of Indian leaders The People's Assembly of 1948. Problems of the united front PHASE OF THE PROGRAMME OF ACTION, 1948-50: A complicated historical juncture Introduction ANC & the general election of 1948 Emergence of the Congress Youth League. What was its strategy? CYL's programme for a new South Africa Issue of a programme of action prior to the ANC's 1948 conference ANC conference, December 1948, & a programme of action Efforts to formulate a programme of action in the course of 1949 ANC conference, December 1949, adopts the Programme of Action Response of the communists to the programme The difficulties of leading Youth Leaguers with the Defend Free Speech Convention, 1950 Suppression of Communism Act. Mandela, Tambo & Sisulu jettison anti-communism CHAMPION, MSIMANG & THEMA LEAVE THE ANC, 1951-52: The end of an era Introduction CYL & radical-democracy CYL & trade unionism. CYL's attitude to the ICU Kadalie's last years Champion's efforts to secure the role of "leader of Natal" Champion's growing irritation with the ANC Natal, the National Fund, the Afrikaner nationalists & the Zulu royal house African-Indian confrontation in Durban the 1949 riots Champion's attitude to the Youth Leaguers & to the Programme of Action Msimang turns against Champion. Lutuli takes over the Natal leadership The Baloyi issue. Congress & the Afrikaner nationalists Thema's role in Congress, 1946-49 Thema in 1949 Establishment of the National-minded Bloc The National-minded Bloc, business & "economic independence" The Youth Leaguers & the National-minded Bloc Common basis of the defection of Thema, Champion & Msimang Defiance Campaign, 1952 Xuma & the ANC, late '40s-early '50s, including his attitude to the Defiance Campaign Postscript: How did Xuma come to turn against the ANC? LUTULI & MANDELA, 1952-61: The Mahabane heritage Introduction The problem of a united front with the Liberal Party The ANC, the Liberal Party & the COP What influences shaped the Freedom Charter? The land shall be shared among those who work it What organization or organizational framework was responsible for the Charter? Lutuli & the Freedom Charter M-Plan preparation for revolution? The 1958 ANC constitution & the question of centralization Political orientation of the IDAMF All-in African Conference, October 1956 Multi-racial Conference, December 1957. Question of the broad front Proceedings of the Multi-racial Conference Was the Multi-racial Conference simply a dead end? Dialogue continues Liberal Party-ANC relationship in the late 1950s The PAC Why did the ANC leadership prevaricate on the issue of a pass campaign? Growing lack of confidence in the method of mass campaigns Crisis symptoms in the economy "Sharpeville". Was it a herald of revolution or counter-revolution? Conceptual considerations in relation to the call for a national convention, 1960-1 Reference list Index

Open Access Politics and international relations

  • Product Information
  • Format: 245mm x 175mm (Hard Cover)
  • Pages: 688
  • ISBN 13: 978-0-7969-2488-9
  • Rights: World Rights

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ICU, ANC, CP and Congress Alliance Author Sylvia Neame's study of the development of the national liberation movement in South Africa is in stark contrast to the frequent depictions of the history of the ANC by leading academics as fragmented, fractured and discontinuous. Not only does her analyses disprove the belief that the ANC's development has been episodic, several of the conclusions drawn point to its essential inner coherence. Crucial to the development of the congress movement was the search for an alliance strategy that would ensure the ANC its central role. Particularly striking, and essentially new, is the depiction of the various alliance partners including the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICU), the Communist Party and the South African Congress of Trade Unions and their complicated interaction. The research, based on extensive primary and secondary sources including some eighty interviews dating back to the early 1960s, uniquely combines narrative and analysis. The Congress Movement invites the reader to engage in the fascinating development of the national liberation movement in South Africa in its formative period and uncovers its outstanding continuities as well as the considerable range of its methods. Volume 3 explores how the ANC emerges and steps into its primary role as a national liberation movement resulting from a complex process stretching from the 1920s to the beginning of the 1960s. A key theme in this context is the integral role of the then Congress Youth League leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo. VOLUME 3: 19281961 SEARCHING FOR THE ADEQUATE FORM OF THE UNITED FRONT, 1928-34: Threats to the ANC's primary role Introduction ANC-ICU decision for cooperation, 1928 with an anti-communist rider Issue of passes, 1928-30. League of African Rights. What kind of organization was this? Mahabane, not Gumede, takes the lead in calling for an African Convention Mahabane's policy of a black-white round table & declaration of rights, 1929 ANC conference The communists' attitude to Mahabane's policies Mahabane & communism, 1929 Manoeuvres to dismantle the ANC's primary role, 1926-30 Gumede loses the Congress presidency Plans to restructure the ANC on the basis of employees' organizations role of Ballinger The Non-European Conference ANC AT THE TIME OF THE SEME PRESIDENCY, 1930-37: Its congress character is endangered Introduction Seme's political positions at the time of the founding of the ANC The new Seme constitution Seme & the Upper House at the time of the Mahabane presidency, 1937-40 Seme & business Fate of the Heaton Nicholls initiative in the framework of the Joint Select Committee Some ANC leaders & the Nicholls plan, 1931 State of the ANC in the first half of the '30s Liberals prime DDT Jabavu as African leader on the franchise proposals Congress leaders call for an All African Convention. The regional conferences The All African Convention, 1935 Manoeuvres around the "compromise" of 1936 Thema, Dube & Seme & the "compromise" Seme's removal at the 1937 conference. Mahabane puts the ANC back on course. AAC & ANC, 1937-48: Federal or unitary principle? Introduction Kadalie's response to the AAC Was the AAC a new social movement? The communists' attitude to the AAC Reservations about the AAC & early moves to revive the ANC The AAC challenge is defeated 1943 a turning point Xuma & AAC(-NEUM), including the "meeting of the 12 leaders" ANC UNDER XUMA, 1940-49: To what extent was it a break with the previous era? Introduction Were Congress councillors on the NRC mandated by the ANC? Division of labour between Matthews & Xuma. 1943 NRC Recess Committee on Representation A new phase opens with Africans' Claims Pass campaign, 1943-46 The crisis conditions of 1946 Xuma, Congress & trade unionism Prelude to the African mineworkers' strike African mineworkers' strike, 1946 The communists & the question of a non-European trade union federation Adjournment of the NRC & the Smuts proposals Xuma, the ANC, & the boycott of the NRC Xuma & organization Growing political role of Indian leaders The People's Assembly of 1948. Problems of the united front PHASE OF THE PROGRAMME OF ACTION, 1948-50: A complicated historical juncture Introduction ANC & the general election of 1948 Emergence of the Congress Youth League. What was its strategy? CYL's programme for a new South Africa Issue of a programme of action prior to the ANC's 1948 conference ANC conference, December 1948, & a programme of action Efforts to formulate a programme of action in the course of 1949 ANC conference, December 1949, adopts the Programme of Action Response of the communists to the programme The difficulties of leading Youth Leaguers with the Defend Free Speech Convention, 1950 Suppression of Communism Act. Mandela, Tambo & Sisulu jettison anti-communism CHAMPION, MSIMANG & THEMA LEAVE THE ANC, 1951-52: The end of an era Introduction CYL & radical-democracy CYL & trade unionism. CYL's attitude to the ICU Kadalie's last years Champion's efforts to secure the role of "leader of Natal" Champion's growing irritation with the ANC Natal, the National Fund, the Afrikaner nationalists & the Zulu royal house African-Indian confrontation in Durban the 1949 riots Champion's attitude to the Youth Leaguers & to the Programme of Action Msimang turns against Champion. Lutuli takes over the Natal leadership The Baloyi issue. Congress & the Afrikaner nationalists Thema's role in Congress, 1946-49 Thema in 1949 Establishment of the National-minded Bloc The National-minded Bloc, business & "economic independence" The Youth Leaguers & the National-minded Bloc Common basis of the defection of Thema, Champion & Msimang Defiance Campaign, 1952 Xuma & the ANC, late '40s-early '50s, including his attitude to the Defiance Campaign Postscript: How did Xuma come to turn against the ANC? LUTULI & MANDELA, 1952-61: The Mahabane heritage Introduction The problem of a united front with the Liberal Party The ANC, the Liberal Party & the COP What influences shaped the Freedom Charter? The land shall be shared among those who work it What organization or organizational framework was responsible for the Charter? Lutuli & the Freedom Charter M-Plan preparation for revolution? The 1958 ANC constitution & the question of centralization Political orientation of the IDAMF All-in African Conference, October 1956 Multi-racial Conference, December 1957. Question of the broad front Proceedings of the Multi-racial Conference Was the Multi-racial Conference simply a dead end? Dialogue continues Liberal Party-ANC relationship in the late 1950s The PAC Why did the ANC leadership prevaricate on the issue of a pass campaign? Growing lack of confidence in the method of mass campaigns Crisis symptoms in the economy "Sharpeville". Was it a herald of revolution or counter-revolution? Conceptual considerations in relation to the call for a national convention, 1960-1 Reference list Index

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