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The Congress Movement

The Congress Movement

ICU, ANC, CP and Congress Alliance Author Sylvia Neame's study of the development of the national liberation movement in South Africa is in stark contrast to the frequent depictions of the history of the ANC by leading academics as fragmented, fractured and discontinuous. Not only does her analyses disprove the belief that the ANC's development has been episodic, several of the conclusions drawn point to its essential inner coherence. Crucial to the development of the congress movement was the search for an alliance strategy that would ensure the ANC its central role. Particularly striking, and essentially new, is the depiction of the various alliance partners including the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICU), the Communist Party and the South African Congress of Trade Unions and their complicated interaction. The research, based on extensive primary and secondary sources including some eighty interviews dating back to the early 1960s, uniquely combines narrative and analysis. The Congress Movement invites the reader to engage in the fascinating development of the national liberation movement in South Africa in its formative period and uncovers its outstanding continuities as well as the considerable range of its methods. Volume 1 traces the unfolding of the congress movement from 1917 and looks at socialist and other forces that played an integral part in its formation. The 191820 upsurge, which included an African mineworkers' strike, played a key role in this development and laid the basis in the 1920s for a partnership between the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union and the African National Congress. VOLUME 1: 1917April 1926 TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY OF THE ANC & THE ICU: A critical assessment of a wide range of views Introduction The CI's Black Republic resolution (a) The nature of the ANC (b) The nature of the ICU The ICU as a rural movement: Helen Bradford Erosion of the historical method, 1970s-80s: Neo-Marxists & "social historians" ANC in terms of its relationship to state power: Susan Booysen & Paul Rich The ANC, popular struggle & marginal groupings: Philip Bonner The discontinuous nature of ANC history: Tom Lodge A national-political history of the ANC: Peter Walshe ANC & labour. Continuity in Congress history: Peter Limb The origins of the ANC: Andr Odendaal THE WORKERS' UPSURGE, 1917-20: Birth of the Congress mass movement Introduction ISL & establishment of the IWA Development of the IWA prior to the upsurge Tensions within the IWA Wages movement of 1918The Moffat report Pass campaign of 1919 1920 strike National Congress & formation of a national workers' organization, 1920 Response of the ruling class (a) Low Grade Mines Commission (b) Establishment of the JJC (c) Founding of the TNMCA (d) Umteteli (e) Committee on the Native Pass Laws Mahabane comes to the fore KADALIE & SELBY MSIMANG, 1919-21: Congress, the ICWU & the ICU Introduction Kadalie's background Early days of the ICU Cape Town strike, 1919 Selby Msimang's background SANNC conference, May 1920. African worker organization & Meshach Pelem Establishment of the ICWU at Bloemfontein, July 1920 Problems of structure, arising from the conference ICU claims the role of a nationwide movement The Port Elizabeth events of 1920 Masabalala & Msimang Kadalie & Masabalala break with Msimang at the time of the July 1921 ICWU conference Msimang drifts into the camp of the Joint Councils 1922 STRIKE & UPRISING: Was it anti-black? Introduction State of the parliamentary parties preceding the strike 1922 strike Different streams in the strike Role of the Afrikaner nationalist politicians Role of the blacks in the strike The Cape, the ICU, and the 1922 strike BLACK ORGANIZATIONS IN TRANSITION, 1921-early 1924: Relations with the parliamentary parties Introduction ICU's October 1921 conference ICU's 1923 conference The contradictions continue. ICU & ICWU A new phase: Growing disillusionment with Smuts amongst black leaders Annual conference of Congress, May 1923 ICU in the new phase CP's attitude towards the ICU & black nationalism into early 1924 ICU's January 1924 conference 1924 GENERAL ELECTION: White-Black Front against Smuts? Introduction Pact policies for the general election The Pact & the mining industry The communists & the 1924 election Cape black leaders attempt to establish a united front for the general election The All-African Convention, May 1924 Mahabane & segregation run-up to the election ANC annual conference, May 1924, & the general election Cape blacks in the election campaign Election results how did the blacks vote? Contradictory nature of Hertzog's segregation policy in its early phase ICU & ANC; MID-1924 TO APRIL 1926: Non-cooperation & efforts to establish a united front Introduction The ICU comes to the Rand ICU-ANC relations in the setting of the ANC's 1925 conference Selope Thema's difficulties with Congress, mid-1923 to 1925 ICU's 1925 conference ICU-ANC & the pass issue in 1925 ICU-ANC organizational-structural aspects ICU-ANC the social aspect Receding of Garveyite influence in the ICU. Role of Thaele Kadalie's internationalist outlook CPSA-ICU, 1924-early 1926 Growing disillusionment with Hertzog Mahabane calls for a national convention ANC in Special Convention, January 1926 The Special Convention and the question of mass struggle Problem of the united front between the ICU and the ANC Postscript: Kadalie maintains the role of the ICU as a potential wing of the ANC STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF THE ICU, 1925-April 1926: Trade union, African-Coloured alliance or African nationalist movement? Introduction ICU, the stevedores & the rest of the dockworkers Growth of a town-based branch structure ICU offices, manned by provincial secretaries, tend to undermine the branch structure Opposition to Tyamzashe's bureaucratic methods The communists & the ICU's realignment on a trade union basis ICU's 1925 constitution A Coloured or African organization? Problems of the ICU's leading organs The La Guma inspection report National Council meeting & conference, April 1926, in relation to structural issues Reference list Index              

Open Access Politics and international relations

  • Product Information
  • Format: 148mm x 214mm
  • Pages: 219
  • ISBN 13: 978-07969-1548-1
  • Rights: World Rights

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ICU, ANC, CP and Congress Alliance Author Sylvia Neame's study of the development of the national liberation movement in South Africa is in stark contrast to the frequent depictions of the history of the ANC by leading academics as fragmented, fractured and discontinuous. Not only does her analyses disprove the belief that the ANC's development has been episodic, several of the conclusions drawn point to its essential inner coherence. Crucial to the development of the congress movement was the search for an alliance strategy that would ensure the ANC its central role. Particularly striking, and essentially new, is the depiction of the various alliance partners including the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICU), the Communist Party and the South African Congress of Trade Unions and their complicated interaction. The research, based on extensive primary and secondary sources including some eighty interviews dating back to the early 1960s, uniquely combines narrative and analysis. The Congress Movement invites the reader to engage in the fascinating development of the national liberation movement in South Africa in its formative period and uncovers its outstanding continuities as well as the considerable range of its methods. Volume 1 traces the unfolding of the congress movement from 1917 and looks at socialist and other forces that played an integral part in its formation. The 191820 upsurge, which included an African mineworkers' strike, played a key role in this development and laid the basis in the 1920s for a partnership between the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union and the African National Congress. VOLUME 1: 1917April 1926 TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY OF THE ANC & THE ICU: A critical assessment of a wide range of views Introduction The CI's Black Republic resolution (a) The nature of the ANC (b) The nature of the ICU The ICU as a rural movement: Helen Bradford Erosion of the historical method, 1970s-80s: Neo-Marxists & "social historians" ANC in terms of its relationship to state power: Susan Booysen & Paul Rich The ANC, popular struggle & marginal groupings: Philip Bonner The discontinuous nature of ANC history: Tom Lodge A national-political history of the ANC: Peter Walshe ANC & labour. Continuity in Congress history: Peter Limb The origins of the ANC: Andr Odendaal THE WORKERS' UPSURGE, 1917-20: Birth of the Congress mass movement Introduction ISL & establishment of the IWA Development of the IWA prior to the upsurge Tensions within the IWA Wages movement of 1918 The Moffat report Pass campaign of 1919 1920 strike National Congress & formation of a national workers' organization, 1920 Response of the ruling class (a) Low Grade Mines Commission (b) Establishment of the JJC (c) Founding of the TNMCA (d) Umteteli (e) Committee on the Native Pass Laws Mahabane comes to the fore KADALIE & SELBY MSIMANG, 1919-21: Congress, the ICWU & the ICU Introduction Kadalie's background Early days of the ICU Cape Town strike, 1919 Selby Msimang's background SANNC conference, May 1920. African worker organization & Meshach Pelem Establishment of the ICWU at Bloemfontein, July 1920 Problems of structure, arising from the conference ICU claims the role of a nationwide movement The Port Elizabeth events of 1920 Masabalala & Msimang Kadalie & Masabalala break with Msimang at the time of the July 1921 ICWU conference Msimang drifts into the camp of the Joint Councils 1922 STRIKE & UPRISING: Was it anti-black? Introduction State of the parliamentary parties preceding the strike 1922 strike Different streams in the strike Role of the Afrikaner nationalist politicians Role of the blacks in the strike The Cape, the ICU, and the 1922 strike BLACK ORGANIZATIONS IN TRANSITION, 1921-early 1924: Relations with the parliamentary parties Introduction ICU's October 1921 conference ICU's 1923 conference The contradictions continue. ICU & ICWU A new phase: Growing disillusionment with Smuts amongst black leaders Annual conference of Congress, May 1923 ICU in the new phase CP's attitude towards the ICU & black nationalism into early 1924 ICU's January 1924 conference 1924 GENERAL ELECTION: White-Black Front against Smuts? Introduction Pact policies for the general election The Pact & the mining industry The communists & the 1924 election Cape black leaders attempt to establish a united front for the general election The All-African Convention, May 1924 Mahabane & segregation run-up to the election ANC annual conference, May 1924, & the general election Cape blacks in the election campaign Election results how did the blacks vote? Contradictory nature of Hertzog's segregation policy in its early phase ICU & ANC; MID-1924 TO APRIL 1926: Non-cooperation & efforts to establish a united front Introduction The ICU comes to the Rand ICU-ANC relations in the setting of the ANC's 1925 conference Selope Thema's difficulties with Congress, mid-1923 to 1925 ICU's 1925 conference ICU-ANC & the pass issue in 1925 ICU-ANC organizational-structural aspects ICU-ANC the social aspect Receding of Garveyite influence in the ICU. Role of Thaele Kadalie's internationalist outlook CPSA-ICU, 1924-early 1926 Growing disillusionment with Hertzog Mahabane calls for a national convention ANC in Special Convention, January 1926 The Special Convention and the question of mass struggle Problem of the united front between the ICU and the ANC Postscript: Kadalie maintains the role of the ICU as a potential wing of the ANC STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF THE ICU, 1925-April 1926: Trade union, African-Coloured alliance or African nationalist movement? Introduction ICU, the stevedores & the rest of the dockworkers Growth of a town-based branch structure ICU offices, manned by provincial secretaries, tend to undermine the branch structure Opposition to Tyamzashe's bureaucratic methods The communists & the ICU's realignment on a trade union basis ICU's 1925 constitution A Coloured or African organization? Problems of the ICU's leading organs The La Guma inspection report National Council meeting & conference, April 1926, in relation to structural issues Reference list Index

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